Trade barriers and centralised planning … . many countries put up significant trade barriers to support national industries and discourage imports. National economies are more centralised.
Consumer spending … . incomes have not kept pace with increasing costs of living, squeezing consumer spending. Food prices have reached 30% of income and energy costs are high.
Governments favour nationalisation of food production … . trust in the private sector has collapsed. Many governments take a greater responsibility for food production and farmers have become employees of the state with centralised management on what to grow and when.
State-led Industrial farming …. protected cropping is ubiquitous and ugly but reliable and efficient. Many of these industrial facilities are nationalised, with few barriers to development as the state plays the key role. Highly efficient closed-loop operating environments share services such as integrated water capture, storage and use; recycling nutrients; as well as setting common strategies for pest and disease management. Shorter supply chains mean less consumer packaging of fresh food and canning facilities on site to preserve food for storage, and minimise waste.
Limited consumer choice … . large facilities supply to local markets with the most available and affordable produce, reducing the costs of logistics. Consumers accept less variety of fresh produce but still demand pesticide-free and nutritious food, partly driven by government campaigns to encourage more healthy living.
DIY consumers … . the population has taken up gardening en masse due to the high costs of food, lack of variety, impacts of climate change and unpredictability of food supply. There is demand to learn food growing skills and skill-up in covered cropping.
Food security … . is high up government agendas and they increasingly require big business to provide a complete food security package, from seeds through to plant protection to facilities.